50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life PDF

By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Environment and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Ocean Studies Board

ISBN-10: 0309063981

ISBN-13: 9780309063982

This e-book describes the advance of ocean sciences during the last 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the nationwide technological know-how starting place (NSF) to the field's growth. a few of the people who participated within the interesting discoveries in organic oceanography, chemical oceanography, actual oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe within the ebook how the discoveries have been made attainable by way of mixtures of insightful members, new expertise, and every now and then, serendipity.

as well as describing the improvement of ocean technology, the e-book examines the institutional buildings and know-how that made the advances attainable and provides visions of the field's destiny. This ebook is the first-ever documentation of the heritage of NSF’s department of Ocean Sciences, how the constitution of the department advanced to its current shape, and the people who were chargeable for ocean sciences at NSF as “rotators†and occupation employees during the last 50 years.

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Linear seamount chains remain a problem. Several oceanic plateausgreat deep-rooted (tens of kilometers to the Moho), smooth-backed leviathans that rise to levels 1-3 km above the surrounding deep ocean floorhave been drilled, primarily for the continuous stratigraphy of the mainly calcareous pelagic sediments that blanket the basaltic basement. The origin of many of the plateaus is ascribed to mantle plumes, arising mainly during a short interval during the mid-Cretaceous from unknown depths. Beyond limiting the times of formation, drilling has got us almost nowhere on the plateau problem so far.

Passive Continental Margins The Atlantic Ocean is bordered by passive continental margins, segments of which have been subsiding and receiving continent-derived and carbonate sediments since the Middle Jurassic. The North American margin is covered by a prism of sediments too thick for full penetration with JOIDES Resolution, but the European-African margin has a much thinner cover, and the early history of the margin is thus within reach of the drill. Cores documenting the early history of the Morocco margin show a beginning with a Late Triassic proto-Atlantic saline basin below sea level and progressive Mesozoic evolution from fluviatile to deeper and deeper waters.

Proposals for specific riser drilling objectives are now being formulated. As for nonriser, ODP-style drilling, NSF is said to be looking at the possibilities of funding a Resolution-type vessel for operations post-2003, in addition to paying its share of the Japanese riser ship daily costs. S. COMPOST-II Committee on Post-2003 Scientific Ocean Drilling issued a report in 1996 endorsing a two-ship program. The active scientific community is busy writing proposals to be discussed at a planned international conference in 1999.

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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950-2000 by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Environment and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Ocean Studies Board

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