By Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert
With the hole of sea routes within the 15th century, teams of fellows and girls left Portugal to set up themselves around the ports and towns of the Atlantic or Ocean sea. They have been refugees and migrants, investors and mariners, Jews , Catholics, and the Marranos of combined Judaic-Catholic tradition. They shaped a diasporic group identified via contemporaries because the Portuguese state. through the early 17th century, this kingdom with out a nation had created a striking buying and selling community that spanned the Atlantic, reached into the Indian Ocean and Asia, and generated thousands of pesos that have been used to bankroll the Spanish empire. A kingdom Upon the sea Sea strains the tale of the Portuguese kingdom from its emergence within the past due 15th century to its fragmentation in the midst of the 17th and situates it on the subject of the parallel enlargement and drawback of Spanish imperial dominion within the Atlantic. opposed to the backdrop of this dating, the e-book reconstitutes the wealthy internal lifetime of a group according to circulate, maritime exchange, and cultural hybridity. we're brought to mariners and investors in such disparate areas as Lima, Seville and Amsterdam, their day by day interactions and understandings, their homes and family family members, their deepest reflections and public arguments. This finaly-textured account finds how the Portuguese kingdom created a cohesive and significant neighborhood regardless of the mobility and dispersion of its participants; how its types of sociability fed into the improvement of strong transatlantic advertisement networks; and the way the daily event of exchange used to be translated into the sector of Spanish imperial politics of business reform in keeping with religious-ethnic toleration and the liberalization of alternate. A microhistory, A kingdom Upon the sea Sea contributes to our knowing of the wider histories of capitalism, empire, and diaspora within the early Atlantic.
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Additional info for A Nation upon the Ocean Sea: Portugal's Atlantic Diaspora and the Crisis of the Spanish Empire, 1492-1640
25 Ironically, such classiﬁcatory schemes, born of a desire to marginalize and control the converso population, served only to spread the converso status within Portuguese society. It stood to reason: with each passing generation exogamy reduced the number of families who could claim a completely ‘‘pure’’ Christian lineage. The corollary was of course also true: exogamy diminished the number of ‘‘pure’’ conversos, those known as ‘‘entirely of the New Christian caste’’ in the documents of the Inquisition.
Charles V, for instance, proposed opening the Indies trades to cities other than Seville and to merchants other than the Castilians, wholly in keeping with the universal and pluralistic character of his imperial vision. 54 His heir, Philip II, hewed to a more centralizing imperial vision. He had his own allies in the commercial sectors of his empire, especially the consulado (trading guild) of Seville, that tirelessly militated for decrees and institutions to ensure that the Indies trades ﬂowed exclusively through its port and into the hands of its merchants.
The more fortunate Sephardim had Portuguese kinfolk who could accommodate them and ease their transition. The rest were sheltered as best could be managed by their coreligionists. 20 The Christian community, pace the acts of individual charity, viewed these events with growing alarm and rising intolerance. The inﬂow of seaborne refugees came to an abrupt halt in the winter of 1493 as a long set of severe Atlantic storms lashed the coast of Portugal. The storms had already sent twenty-ﬁve ships of the Flanders ﬂeet to the bottom of the sea.
A Nation upon the Ocean Sea: Portugal's Atlantic Diaspora and the Crisis of the Spanish Empire, 1492-1640 by Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert