Download PDF by Christoph Meinel: Algorithms and Data Structures in VLSI Design

By Christoph Meinel

ISBN-10: 3540636897

ISBN-13: 9783540636892

One of many major difficulties in chip layout is the big variety of attainable mixtures of person chip components inside a procedure, and the matter in their compatibility. the new program of knowledge buildings, effective algorithms, and ordered binary choice diagrams (OBDDs) has confirmed important in designing the pc chips of the next day to come. This e-book offers an creation to the rules of this interdisciplinary learn zone, emphasizing its functions in computing device aided circuit layout.

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✴ ✭✤❄✌ ✭✘✤✙✮❑✎✡✜✣✤✍✺€✜ ✙ ✭ ✝ ✂ ☛✞ ✁ ✂ ✂ ✁ ✂ ✁ ✡ ✂ ☛ ✠☛✡ ✂ ✒✓✡ ✂ ✁ ✁ ✁✞ ✡ ✡ ✁ ✂ ✡ ✂ ✂ ✡ ✂ ✁ ✡ ✒✓✡ ✁ ✡ ✂ ✠☛✡ ✂ ✂ ✂ ✁ ✂ ✁ ✁ ✂ ✁ ✁ ✂ ✂ ✁ ✑✥✤✛✺✣✄✘✤❄✕✒✁✪✭✘✮✡✑✥✺€✕✒✑✥✄✘✤✵✕☎✄❑✕✒✎✡✜■✭✳✓✒✓✒✸✡❱❑✗●✕☎✑✲✄✳✤❦✞ ✞ ✘★✩✎✡✖✜✻✩✧✡ s❬✜✣✆ ✑✥✽✘❇✢✶ ✎❄✕❘✧✖✄✝✠✢✟ ✆❬✖✕✒✠✎✡✜ ✗✖❡❩✸ ✾❶✕✒✎ ❯ ✤❙❱✻✸✡✽✘✭✘✽✳✤✢✜€✕❘✎✙✭✘✑✥✓ ✓✿✑✲✤❙✱✳✄✳✜✧✸✡✓✖✕✒✤✙✜✧✺✣✮ ✜✧✓✧✭✝✞✵✦✥✦❈❛✡✎✡✄✘✑✔✁■✓☛✓✒❱♦✑✥❱♦✄✳✤✡✗✙✜✣✦✲✑✔✴✛✺€✑✲✕✟✑✥✤✴✹✌❈❀✝s✏❥q✜✻✽✘✭✘✄✳✓☎✦✥✮✛✓✒✸✡✤❙❱❑✸✡✜⑥✽✳✽✘✕☎✜€✎✙✕✪✭❜✓✣✕ ✞ ✞ ✌✑ ✞ ❾ ✭ ✮ ❾ ✣✴✣✴✣ ❾ ✭✡✠ ✜ ✭ ★ ✚ ☞ ✔✌ ✘✭ ✁✒✜❬✤✙✭❜✕☎✸✡✁✪✭✝✦❄✤❄✸✙❱❇✬▲✜✣✁✪✓✣✞ ✎✡✜✣✤⑥✕✒✎✙✜❬❱✻✭✘✤♦✮●✑✥✜✧✓ ❜✎✡✑✔✓✶✦✥✭✳✓✟✕✶s❖✑✥✦✲✦✡✺✣✄✘✤❄✕☎✭✘✑✲✤✙✓ ✕✒✎✙✜✹✆➛✄✘✦✥✦✲✄❜s❖✑✥✤✡✽ ✺✣✄✘✤✙✮●✑✲✕✒✑✥✄✘✤✷♥✢❩❉✆❘✎✡✑✥✓q✁✒✑✔✺✪✎✡✜☞✓✻✺✣✭✝✤ ✬▲✜✢✓✒✗✡✦✲✑✲✕q✑✥✤❄✕✒✄ ✕✟s❬✄ ✗✙✭✝✁✒✕☎✓✻✄✘✆❘✜ ❄✸✙✭✝✦ s❬✜✣✑✥✽✘✎❄✕ ❜✕☎✎✡✜✣✤♦✜✧✭✳✺✪✎❇✄✘✆✙✎✡✑✔✓✼✮✡✭✝✸✡✽✳✎❄✕✒✜✣✁✪✓◗✓✖✎✡✄✳✸✡✦✔✮❇✄✳✬●✕☎✭✘✑✲✤⑥✄✘✤✡✜✩✄✝✆✙✕✒✎✡✜☞✓✖✜✩✗✙✭✘✁✖✕✪✓✣✞❈❩❉✆✍✑✥✤✙✓✟✕☎✜✧✭✳✮ ✕✒✎✙✜✣✁☎✜❘✑✥✓✩✤✡✄✵✓✒✸✙✺✪✎r✗✙✭✝✁✒✕✒✑✲✕✒✑✥✄✘✤ ❙✕✒✎✡✜✧✤✛✭✘✦✲✦➆✎✙✑✥✓❖✽✳✄✘✦✔✮✫✓✒✎✡✄✳✸✡✦✥✮✫✽✘✄♦✕☎✄⑥✕☎✎✡✜■✺✪✎❙✸✡✁✪✺✪✎❦✞ ★✩✎✡✜♦✽✘✜✧✤✡✜✣✁✪✭✝✦ ✳✸✙✜✧✓✖✕✒✑✥✄✘✤✹✕☎✎✡✜✣✁☎✜€✆➛✄✳✁✒✜⑥✑✥✓✧♥✰❩✟✓☛✑➀✕❏✗✍✄❄✓✒✓✒✑✥✬✡✦✲✜❇✕✒✄✛✮●✑✥✱❄✑✔✮●✜♦✭q✓✒✜€✕❏✄✝✆ ✂ ✤✙✭✝✕✒✸✡✁✪✭✝✦ ✤❙✸✡❱❇✬▲✜✣✁✪✓ ✎ ✭ ✞ ❾ ❾✳✭ ✠ ✖☛✑✥✤✻✕✟s❬✄❇✓✖✸✙✬✙✓✖✜✣✕☎✓❬✓✖✸✍✺✪✎✻✕✒✎✙✭✝✕♠✕☎✎✡✜☛✓✒✸✡❱✻✓♠✄❜✱✳✜✣✁✂✜☞✭✘✺✪✎✵✓✒✸✡✬✙✓✒✜€✕✩✭✝✁☎✜ ✜ ❄✸✙✭✘✆ ✦ ☛ ★✩✎✙✑✥✓♦✗✡✁☎✄✘✬✡✦✥✜✣❱ ✑✔✓✻✺✣✭✘✦✲✦✥✜✧✮ ✁ ✭✘✤✙✮ ✑✔✓ ✁ ❫✾❉✺✣✄✘❱❑✗✡✦✥✜€✕☎✜✘✞ ★✩✎✡✜ ✝ ✝ ✓✖✕✒✁✪✭✝✑✥✽✘✎❄✕✖✆➛✄✳✁✒s✩✭✝✁✪✮ ✕☎✁✒✑✔✭✝✦✲✾❁✭✝✤✙✮❙✾❉✜✣✁☎✁☎✄✘✁❑❱❑✜€✕✒✎✙✄❙✮ ✑✥✓✫✄✘✤✡✦✥✴◆✗✡✁☎✭✳✺❽✕☎✑✥✺✧✭✝✦❖✆➛✄✳✁✫✓✒❱❑✭✘✦✲✦ ✂ ✿✭✘✓q✑➀✕ ✁☎✜ ❄✸✡✑✥✁✒✜☞✓✂✕☎✜✧✓✖✕✒✑✥✤✡✽❇✄✘✆❈✭✝✦✥✦ ❃ ✠ ✗✍✄❄✓✒✓✒✑✥✬✡✑✲✦✥✑✲✕✒✑✥✜✧✓✏✑✲✤q✕✒✎✡✜❫s✏✄✳✁☎✓✖✕❬✺✧✭✘✓✒✜✘✞ ❣ ✄✘✕✒✜✰✕☎✎✙✭❜✕✩✑✲✆❈✓✖✄✳❱❑✜✣✄✘✤✙✜ ✽✘✑✥✱✘✜☞✓✩✴✘✄✳✸r✭❑✓✒✄✘✦✥✸●✕✒✑✥✄✘✤ ●✴✳✄✘✸✛✺✣✭✘✤✫✱✳✜✣✁☎✑➀✆➛✴✻✕☎✎✡✑✔✓✰✓✖✄✳✦✲✸✡✕✒✑✥✄✘✤r✱✘✜✣✁☎✴✻✜✧✭✳✓✖✑✥✦✥✴✘✞ ❃ ★✩✎✡✜❑✆➛✄✘✦✥✦✥✄❜s❖✑✲✤✡✽✹✗✙✁✒✄✳✬✡✦✲✜✧❱ ◗✺✧✭✝✦✥✦✲✜☞✌ ✮ ☞ ✁ ✝ ✝ ✁ ✁ ✚ ✝ ❈✑✔✓■✭✝✦✔✓✒✄ ✁ ❫✾❁✺€✄✘❱❑✗✡✦✥✜€✕☎✜✘✞⑥❍❫✑✥✱✘✜✧✤ ✭✘✤ ✸✡✤✍✮●✑✲✁☎✜✧✺€✕✒✜☞✮✢✽✘✁✪✭✝✗✙✎ s❖✑✲✕✒✎ ✂ ✤✡✄●✮●✜✧✓ ❦✮●✄❙✜✧✓☛✕☎✎✡✜✣✁☎✜⑥✜ ●✑✥✓✖✕■✭ ✺€✴●✺✣✦✲✑✔✺❇✗✍✭❜✕✒✎ ✄✝✆♠✦✥✜✣✤✙✽✝✕✒✎ ✂ ✕✒✎✡✁☎✄✘✸✙✽✘✎✹✕☎✎✡✜⑥✽✳✁☎✭✘✗✡✎✢s❖✎✡✑✔✺✪✎✢✕☎✁☎✭❋✱✳✜✣✁✪✓✖✜☞✓❖✜✧✭✳✺✪✎✢✤✡✄●✮●✜♦✑✲✤ ✕✒✎✡✜ ✽✘✁✪✭✝✗✙✎✫✜ ●✭✳✺❽✕☎✦✲✴✵✄✳✤✙✺€✜✍☛ ✺ ✭ ✔✌ ✔✓ ✔✓ ✗ ✑✸ ✭ ✓ ✣✴✣✴✣ ✌ ✭ ✌ ✍✎ ✔✓ ✽✌ ✖ ✄ ☛ ☛✒ ✭ ✖ ☛ ✣✒ ☛✩✖ ✔✁✌ ☛✩✄ ✁ ☛ ☎✌ ✌ ✍✎ ❼ ➓✩➁✣✇❁✉❄✈①➈❄❻ ➔❽→ ✯✰✶✕✏ ✌✞✛❀✎✒✛❃✓❉✌ ✧✖✠✢✟✡✟❉✠ ✘✵❊ ✱ ✙✦✓ ✡ ✆ ❇✢✶☛✡ ✶✷✌✏✎✒✩✫✑ ✥ ✴✩✬✜✛✹✣✍✯✖✱✏✢ ✛ ✾✝★❍✺✹✱■✙✏✥▲✶✭✥✮✛✟✦✘✴✵✬❅✛✹✣✍✯✖✱✍✢ ✬❅✱✏✶✭❂❄✯ ✪✮✶☎✾■✬❅✛✟✢ ✣✏❏ ✦✵✱❃✻❉★✰✪❃✥✧✦❉✻ ★✰✯✧✯ ★✰✦ ✶☞☛◗✱✍✬■✶ ✍ ✺✹✱■✙✍✥▲✶■✥✮✛✟✦❙✴✩✬❅✛✑✣✏✯ ✱✏✢ ✥▲✶ ✙■★✰✯✧✯ ✱✜✺ ✙✥✓✮③ ✭ ③ ✙✦✓ ✡ ✆ ❇✢✶ ✎✒✶ ❯✒✥ ✾ ✪❋❊ ✱☛✙■✛✰✢✝✴✩✯✖✱✍✢ ✱✏✦ ✪✫★✟✬✭❏✲✴✵✬❅✛✹✣ ✌ ✯✖✱✍✢ ✥▲✶ ✭ ✌✿✙■✛✟✢ ✴✵✯✖✱✏✪ ✱ ✘ ✖✧✩ ✡ ✆ ❇✢✶ ✧✖✠✢✟✫✧✾✠ ★✩✎✙✜❏✆➛✄✘✦✥✦✲✄❜s❖✑✥✤✡✽❑✗✡✁☎✄✘✬✡✦✥✜✣❱ ✑✔✓ ✙✦✓❥③ ✭❫✾❁✺€✄✳❱❑✗✡✦✲✜✣✕✒✜✳♥ ☛✍✌ ✆✞✗✘✎ ✔ ❯ ✤r✸✙✤✙✮●✑✥✁✒✜☞✺❽✕✒✜☞✮r✽✘✁✪✭✝✗✡✎✫s❖✑➀✕☎✎ ✂ ✤✡✄●✮●✜☞✓✣✞ ✒✿✗✘✎ ✆ ✗✘✎ ✔ ✆ ✜✧✓✞✝ ✍✌ ✑➀✆✼✕☎✎✡✜✣✁☎✜ ✺✑✛✔✱✏✶✘✦✵✛✰❖✪ ✜✏●✎ ✑✔✓✟✕❫✭✵✺€✴●✺€✦✥✑✔✺❘✗✙✭❜✕☎✎✢✄✝✆✼✦✥✜✣✤✡✽✘✕✒✎ ✂ s❖✎✡✑✔✺✪✎✛✕✒✁✪✭❜✺ ✾ ✱✘✜✧✁☎✓✒✜✧✓❬✜☞✭✘✺✪✎r✤✡✄●✮●✜❘✑✲✤r✕☎✎✡✜❘✽✘✁✪✭✝✗✡✎✫✜✏✡✎ ✭✘✺€✕✒✦✥✴✵✄✘✤✍✺€✜✘✞ ✆ ❣ ✄ ✝✒●✌ ✄✝✕☎✎✡✜✣✁☎s❖✑✥✓✒✜✘✞ ✂ ✂ ✂ ✂ ✂ ✡ ✁ ✁ ✡ ✁ ✞ ✁ ❛❝❜✄✂✆☎ r✧♥ ☛ ♦✕q ✛ ✩✫✪✜❁✘✛❃✌✘❄✘✠ ✹✌ ❁✘✩✻✪✒❁✞✛✢✌✞❄ ☞ ★✩✎✡✜❬✕☎✜✣✁☎❱ ✮●✜✣✤✡✄✘✕✒✜☞✓◗✮✙✭❜✕☎✭❏✓✖✕✒✄✳✁☎✭✘✽✘✜✏✭✘✤✙✮■✁☎✜€✕☎✁✒✑✥✜✣✱❜✭✘✦❄❱❑✜☞✺✪✎✙✭✝✤✡✑✔✓✒❱❑✓ s❖✎✡✑✔✺✪✎ ✺€✄✳❱♦✗✙✸●✕✒✜❑✕☎✎✡✜q✭✘✮✙✮●✁✒✜☞✓✒✓✒✜✧✓❏✄✘✆✩✕✒✎✡✜q✮✙✭❜✕☎✭✛✁☎✜✧✺✣✄✘✁✪✮✡✓☛✆➛✁✒✄✳❱➎✺✣✄✘✁☎✁✒✜☞✓✖✗▲✄✘✤✍✮●✑✲✤✙✽✫❚✳✜✣✴●✓✣✞ ❛✡✄✳✁✒❱✻✭✘✦✲✦✥✴ ✡✭♦✎✙✭✳✓✖✎✫✆➛✸✡✤✙✺€✕✒✑✥✄✘✤ ✝ ✏❳ ☎ ⑤ ♥✟✞ ✎✙✭✳✓❑✕✒✄ ✬▲✜✢✮●✜ ✙✤✙✜✧✮◆s❖✎✡✑✔✺✪✎◆❱✻✭✘✗✙✓♦✕✒✎✡✜✢✓✒✜€✕✵✄✘✆❫❚✳✜✣✴●✓✠✞ ✕☎✄ ✭ ✓✖✜✣✕✵✄✝✆❘✭✘✮✡✮●✁☎✜✧✓☎✓✒✜✧✓❇⑤■✞ ❯ ✮✡✭✝✕☎✭✛✁☎✜✧✺✣✄✘✁✪✮✢s❖✑✲✕✒✎ ✭✛❚✘✜✧✴ ✳✙ ✞ ✑✔✓❏✕☎✎✡✜✣✤ ✓✖✕✒✄✳✁✒✜☞✮ ✭✝✕❘✕✒✎✡✜q✭✳✮✡✮●✁☎✜✧✓☎✓ ✝ €✞✫❧♠✭✳✺✪✎ ✓✒✸✡✬✙✓✒✜ ❄✸✡✜✣✤❄✕✩✁✒✜✣✕✒✁☎✑✲✜✧✱❜✭✝✦✙✁☎✜ ❄✸✡✜☞✓✟✕✏✆➛✄✘✁✏✕✒✎✡✑✔✓✩✮✡✭❜✕✪✭■✁☎✜✧✺✣✄✘✁✪✮✻✺€✄✘✤✍✓✖✑✔✓✟✕✪✓✏✓✒✄✘✦✥✜✣✦✥✴❑✄✝✆✷✺✣✄✘❱❑✗✡✸●✕☎✑✲✤✡✽ ✕✒✎✙✜❘✎✙✭✘✓✒✎✛✱❋✭✘✦✲✸✙✜ ✝ ❖✭✝✤✍✮✫✓✒✜✧✭✘✁☎✺✪✎✡✑✥✤✡✽❑✭❜✕✩✕✒✎✙✑✥✓✰✭✳✮✡✮●✁☎✜✧✓☎✓✣✞ ❩❁✤⑥✕✒✎✡✜✩✮●✜✧✓✒✑✥✽✘✤❇✄✘✆✙✎✙✭✳✓✖✎❘✕☎✜✧✺✪✎✡✤✙✑ ❄✸✡✜☞✓✷✕✟s❬✄✿✑✥❱❑✗✍✄✳✁✖✕✪✭✝✤❄✕✼✭✘✓✒✗✍✜☞✺❽✕☎✓◗✎✙✭❋✱✳✜✂✕☎✄☛✬▲✜❬✺✣✄✘✤✙✓✒✑✔✮●✜✣✁☎✜✧✮➆♥ ✔✓ ✔✓ ✗ ✸ ✗ ✸ ✓ ✁ ✓❉❇❃❇✢✛❃✪✒✭✝✛❃✓❉✤✍✌✞✮q✪ ✑✔✔ ✮●✜✣❩❉✕☛✤❄✕☎✎✙✑✥✺✧✭✘✭✝✓✩✦❦✕☎✎✙✄✵✭✳✬▲✓✖✎r✜❇✱❜✮●✭✝✜€✦✥✕☎✸✡✜✣✜✁☎❱❑✑✲✗ ✤✡✜☞✸✲✮✛✴ ✎✡✄❜s➋✗ ✸❬✕✒✎✡✑✥✜❇✓✩✎✍✺✧✭✘✭✝✓✒✤✙✜❘✮●✦✥✄✝✜✧✆✶✮❦✕✟✞ s❬✄✻❚✘✜✣✴●✓ ✭✝✤✙✮ ✄ s❖✑➀✕☎✎ ✁✭✝✤✍❁✘✮✫✓✡✓✒✛✢✎✡✙✥✶✄✘✸✙✓✡✦✥✮r✸ ❁✘✮●✑✔✩✫✓✟✪✜✕☎✁✒❁ ✑✥✬✡✸✺✸●✗✘✕☎✌✞✜❏✙✚✕✒✎✜✎✡✛✢✜■✓✡✌ ✓✒✜€✔ ✕❖★✩✄✝✎✡✆◗✜☛❚✘✜✧ ✎✙✴❙✭✘✓ ✓✒✎❑✆➛✸✡✭✘✄✤✙✓❬✺€✜✣✕✒✱✳✑✥✄✘✜✣✤✤✛✭✝✤✙✓✖✮r✎✡✄✳✭✘✸✡✓✩✦✔✮❑✁✪✭✝✬✍✤✍✜☛✮●✄✘✜✧❱❑✭✘✓✒✦✥✴■✴✵✕☎✭✘✄❇✓✩✺€✗▲✄✳✄✳❱❑✓☎✗✡✓✖✑✥✸●✬✡✕✒✦✥✜✜ ✄✴ ✂ ✄ ✝ ✝ ✝ ✗➛✑✥✤✛✄✘✁✪✮●✜✣✁✩✕☎✄❑❚✘✜✣✜✧✗q✕☎✎✡✜❘✤❙✸✡❱❇✬▲✜✣✁✿✄✝✆◗✺✣✄✘✦✥✦✲✑✔✓✒✑✲✄✳✤✙✓❖✓✖❱✻✭✘✦✲✦✧✸❽✞ ✁ ✓❉❇❃❇✢✛❃✪✒✛❃✓❉✌ ❇❃✛✢✪✒✎✦✠ ❯ ✤ ✜✧✭✳✓✖✴✛s✩✭❋✴✫✕☎✄q✕☎✁✒✜☞✭❜✕❏✺€✄✘✦✥✦✥✑✥✓✒✑✲✄✳✤✙✌ ✓☛✕✒✑✥✎✡✓☛✜✹✕✒✄r✓✒✄✝✦✥✾❁✑✲✺✣✤✡✭✝❚✢✦✥✦✥✜✧✮✙✮ ✭❜✕☎✙✥✭✫✓❉✄✘❇❃❇✢✬ ✛✢❱✟✪✜✜✧✛✢✺❽✓✡✕✪✌✂✓❫s❖❇✢✛✢✑➀✪✒✕☎✎ ✎ ✞ ✑✔✮●✜✣✤❄✕✒✑✔✺✣✭✘✦❖✎✙✭✘✓✒✎ ✱❜✭✘✦✲✸✡✜☞✓♦✕✒✄✳✽✘✜€✕☎✎✡✜✣✁♦✑✥✤◆✭ ✦✥✑✲✤✡✜☞✭✝✁❑✦✥✑✥✓✖✕✔♠ ❲❙✜☞✭✝✁✪✺✪✎✡✑✲✤✙✽✛✆➛✄✘✁❇✭✢✮✙✭❜✕☎✭✛✁☎✜✧✺✣✄✘✁✪✮ s❖✑➀✕☎✎ ❚✘✜✣✴ ✕☎✎✡✜✣✤ ✁☎✜✔❄✓ ✸✡✑✥✁✒✜☞✓■✺€✄✳❱❑✗✡✸●✕✒✑✥✤✡✽ ✗ ✸✭✼✌ ✭✝✤✍✮ ✓✒✸✡✬✙✓✒✜✔❄✓ ✸✡✜✣✤❄✕☎✦✲✴ ✓✖✜☞✭✝✁✪✺✪✎✡✑✲✤✙✽r✓✒✜✔❄✓ ✸✡✜✧✤✳✕☎✑✥✭✘✦✲✦✥✴✹✆➛✄✳✁ ✑✲✤ ✕☎✎✡✜q✺€✄✳✦✲✦✥✑✔✓✖✑✥✄✘✤ ✦✲✑✔✓✖✕❇✺€✄✘✁☎✁☎✜✧✓✒✗✍✄✳✤✙✮●✑✥✤✡✽ ✕✒✄ ✗ ❽✸ ✞ ✘✭✻✖✓✖✕✒✧✩ ✁☎✡ ✑✲✤✡✽✆ ❇✢✶ ✴ ✧✖✠✢✟✱❆✖✣✒✠ ✣✴❨✷✣ ✜€✕✸ ✡✌ s❬✜❘✬✍✜✰✮●✜✏✕✒✎✡✍❳ ✜✰✤✡✜❏✓✒✜€✕✒✕✂✎✡✄✘✜■✆▲✺✣✭✝✄✘✦✥✁☎✦✙✁✒✓✖✜☞✕✒✓✖✁☎✗▲✑✲✤✙✄✘✽✳✤✍✓✔✮●✘✌ ✑✲✭✝✤✙✤✙✽⑥✮⑥✎✙✦✥✭✳✜€✓✖✕❍✎r⑤ ✱❜✭✝✴ ✦✥✸✡✎ ✜❏❥❥✬❙❾ ✴✣✴✣✒✣ ❾✒❢✘❢ ✖✳✞◗❛✡✄✘✁ ✟✞ ✸ ✗ ✲✸ ✴ ✗ ✟✞ ✣✴✣✴✣ ✸ ✶✸ ✴ ✭✘✓☎✺✟✗ ✑✚ ✸ ➑✗ ❱❑✄❙✮ ❡☞❥✘❥✑€✸ ❾ ✡✞ ✝ ✝ ☛✞ ✞ ✝ ✝ ☞ ✚✍✌✧✞ ❼❖➒◗➁✧✇❁✈①❷✪✇ 0 .

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Algorithms and Data Structures in VLSI Design by Christoph Meinel


by Ronald
4.4

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