By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Assessment Committee
Expanding renewable strength improvement, either in the usa and in a foreign country, has rekindled curiosity within the capability for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) assets to give a contribution to electrical energy iteration. those assets derive from ocean tides, waves, and currents; temperature gradients within the ocean; and free-flowing rivers and streams. One degree of the curiosity within the attainable use of those assets for electrical energy iteration is the expanding variety of allows which were filed with the Federal power Regulatory fee (FERC). As of December 2012, FERC had issued four licenses and eighty four initial allows, up from nearly 0 a decade in the past. besides the fact that, every one of these allows are for advancements alongside the Mississippi River, and the particular profit discovered from all MHK assets is very small. the 1st U.S. advertisement gridconnected undertaking, a tidal venture in Maine with a means of below 1 megawatt (MW), is at the moment providing a fragment of that strength to the grid and is because of be absolutely put in in 2013.
As a part of its overview of MHK assets, DOE requested the nationwide learn Council (NRC) to supply unique reviews. In reaction, the NRC shaped the Committee on Marine Hydrokinetic strength know-how evaluate. As directed in its assertion of activity (SOT), the committee first constructed an intervening time document, published in June 2011, which interested in the wave and tidal source tests (Appendix B). the present document comprises the committee's evaluate of all 5 of the DOE source different types in addition to the committee's reviews at the total MHK source evaluation technique. This precis makes a speciality of the committee's overarching findings and conclusions concerning a conceptual framework for constructing the source exams, the aggregation of effects right into a unmarried quantity, and the consistency throughout and coordination among the person source exams. opinions of the person source review, extra dialogue of the sensible MHK source base, and overarching conclusions and suggestions are defined in An overview of the U.S. division of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic source Assessment.
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Extra resources for An Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments
Each of the assessments is presented in a separate chapter, which introduces the basic resource, describes the project, comments on assessment methodology and validation, and offers conclusions and recommendations. The discussion of tides can be found in Chapter 2, waves in Chapter 3, ocean currents in Chapter 4, OTEC in Chapter 5, and riverine and instream flows in Chapter 6. A discussion of the practical MHK resource and constraints posed by socioeconomic and environmental filters is included in Chapter 7, and overarching conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter 8.
However, the orders-of-magnitude differences between theoretical, technical, and practical resources needs to be stressed, especially because some resource assessments have been publicized in terms of a national or regional single-number estimate. To provide a better understanding of the difference among these resources, two scenarios are provided below. • Scenario 1. A local official examines one of the MHK GIS databases and notes that there is a 100 MW theoretical resource nearby. 4 MW. 7 MW.
Field data also show a significant ebb dominance and directional asymmetry, in contrast to flood dominance and directional symmetry given by the resource maps. The committee feels that efforts should have been focused on obtaining more observational data in the validation study rather than on producing a large metric of error statistics between model results and observations. , 2005; Patchen, 2007; NOAA, 2011a). Because power is related to the cube of current speed, errors of 100 percent or more occur in the prediction of tidal power density in many model regions.
An Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Assessment Committee